how to design a cnc machine
Calculate the size of the work table. The amount of travel the spindle can accommodate is important to the overall usefulness of the machine. Using the amount of power the spindle motor will contain, estimate the largest amount of steel that spindle can handle. If the spindle is underpowered, it may be unnecessary to make the table very large as the machine will be too underpowered to work on such large pieces of metal.
Design the tool turret to hold a good amount of tooling. Most turrets hold about 12 tools but if you have a larger machine, you may want to include more tooling options. When designing a CNC machine, you must consider options based on machine size and its overall footprint related to its power. A larger, more powerful CNC machine may require more tool changes than a smaller, compact machine with less power.
Create a plan for chip holding. A chip drawer must be able to accommodate chips that are cut in the machine. Some larger machines have chip conveyors that automatically remove the chips from under the work table. If you only use a chip drawer to save money, make sure it can accommodate enough chips to prevent them from accumulating too quickly.
Use a control that satisfies the needs of the consumer. If the machine will be used for simple operations, you can cut costs by including a simple computer control. If the shop is considering cutting on more than three axises for a mill and more than two for a lathe, you'll want the control to be able to accommodate the more advanced programming.
Include safety features to ensure the safety of the operator. Include a control that has built-in alarms and consider a tool-break laser that can identify when a tool has broken and automatically pause the cycle to prevent further damage.